Addiction is a major public health problem that affects millions of people throughout the world. It is a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite grievous physical and psychological consequences. Treatments for addiction are complex and multifaceted, but there is great hope in finding an effective approach.
The most commonly used, evidence-based treatments for addiction fall into two major categories: medication and behavioral therapy. Both approaches are available through inpatient and outpatient medical or mental health settings.
Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) involves the use of medications to help reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms that accompany cessation of drug use. Methadone and buprenorphine, prescribed in specially accredited clinics, block the effects of opioids while reducing the risk for overdose. Other medications, such as naltrexone and disulfiram, block the effects of alcohol and other drugs or produce an unpleasant reaction that deters use.
Behavioral therapies are the cornerstone of the treatment of addiction. These are often supplemented by medications, although only a few therapies have been tested with medications. Common types of behavioral therapy include cognitive-behavioral therapy, contingency management, and motivational interviewing.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used evidence-based approach to addiction treatment. It attempts to modify behaviors, thoughts, and emotions to reduce or eliminate substance use. It also includes relapse prevention and anger management techniques. CBT encourages clients to identify and modify behaviors that maintain their addictive behaviors. It also helps them develop the skills needed to avoid or cope with relapse triggers and stressful situations.
Contingency management (CM) is based on positive reinforcement. It uses a voucher-based system to reward individuals for positive behaviors such as increases in attendance and decreases in substance use.
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling approach designed to increase an individual’s readiness to change. This approach entails talking with individuals, assessing the ambivalence, working with them to identify triggers and consequences, and then helping them explore the change process.
In addition, family, couple, and group therapy may be included in a comprehensive addiction treatment plan. These therapies help individuals build trust, cultivate communication skills, and learn problem-solving skills. Family counseling can help family members understand the illness and identify ways to support the recovery process. Couple counseling can improve communication and prevent the use of enabling behaviors. Group therapy can help individuals create coping mechanisms and provide social support.
The most important part of treatment is the fact that it must be individualized to meet the needs of the person struggling with addiction. Treatment plans should involve professionals from multiple disciplines to ensure that all the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors are addressed. Treatment should also be ongoing for as long as is necessary to ensure successful outcomes.
The bottom line is that those suffering from addiction should seek treatment as soon as possible. Even though the recovery process can be quite arduous, there is great hope in finding an effective treatment. With the right approach, individuals can learn to live a life free of addiction.